Imamiyya

Daga wikishia
Wannan wani rubutu ne dangane da Shi'a Isna Ashariyya, domin bayani game da mazhabar shi'a ku duba Shi'a.
matanin Hadisin Wilayar Ali (A.S)

Imamiyya (Arabi; الإمامية) ko shi'a isna ashariyya shine mafi girman reshe a mazhabar shi'a. A cewar ‘yan Shi'ar Imamiyya, shugabancin al’umma bayan Annabi nauyi ne da ke kan Imami kuma Allah ne yake naɗa Imam. A bisa hadisai kamar hadisin Ghadir, ‘yan Shi’ar Imamiyya suna ganin Ali bin Abi ɗalib a matsayin magajin Manzon Allah (SAW) kuma imami na farko, sun yi imani da imamai goma sha biyu, kuma sun yarda cewa limami na goma sha biyu Mahdi yana raye , sede ya bacewa ganin mutane saboda wasu dalilai masu yawa wanda muka sani da wanda Allah ne kaɗai ya barwa kansa sani. Zaidiyyah da Ismailiyyah, sauran firƙoƙin Shi’a guda biyu, ba su yi imani da dukkan imamai goma sha biyu da ‘yan Shi’ar Imamiyya suka yiba , haka nan ma ba sa ganin adadin limamai yakai goma sha biyu.

Tushen aƙidar ƴan shia imamiyya guda biyar ne : kaman ragowar musulmai sun yarda ,Tauhidi ,Annabta,ranar Alƙiyama. Bayan waɗan nan guda ukun da duk Musulmai sukai imani dasu akwai wasu guda biyun dasuka keɓanci ƴan shia sune adalcin Allah da imamanci. ‘Yan Shi’ar Imamiyya suna yin abubuwa da dama a rayuwa,dede da shari'ar musulinci kamar ibada, mu’amala da kuma biyan haƙƙin Allah kaman zakka da khumusu, kamarr yanda tsarin Musulunci ya tanada. Dangane da tunaninsu na tauhidi, fikihu, kyawawan halaye da sauransu, suna komawa ne ga Alƙur’ani da hadisan Manzon Allah (S.A.W) da Imamai goma sha biyu, da hankali da ijma’i . Sheikh Ɗusi, Allameh Hilli da Sheikh Mortada Ansari na daga cikin fitattun malaman fiƙihu, sannan Sheikh Mofid, Khaje Nasir al-Din ɗusi da Allama Hilli suna daga mashahuran malaman tauhidi na Imamiyya. A shekara ta 907 bayan hijira Shah Isma'il ya kafa gwamnatin Safawiyya kuma ya sanya mazhabar shia Imamiyya a gwamnatance a ƙasar Iran . Wannan gwamnati ta taka rawar gani wajen faɗaɗa mazhabar Imamiyya a Iran. Jamhuriyar Musulunci ta Iran ita ce tsarin siyasar kasar Iran a halin yanzu, wanda tsare-tsaren siyasar ƙasar ya ginune dede da mazhabar Shi'a imamiyya . Ranar Ghadir, haihuwar imam Ali bin abu ɗaib, ranar haihuwar sayyada Fatima ‘yar Manzon Allah, da nisfu Sha’aban, su ne bukukuwa mafi muhimmanci na addini musamman ga ‘yan Shi’ar Imamiyya. Makoki da juyayi ga ma'asumai sha biyu Musamman Imam Husaini binu Ali da sahabbansa a cikin watan Muharram na ɗaya daga cikin muhimman ayyukansu.

Babu takamammen ƙididdiga na adadin ‘yan Shi’a Imamiyya a duniya, kuma alƙaluman da ake da su sun haɗa da ƴan shiar Zaidiyya da ‘yan Shi’ar Ismailiyya.sai dai Wasu alkaluma sun nuna cewa yawan mabiya Shi'a a duniya yana tsakanin mutane miliyan 154 zuwa 200, daidai da kashi 10 zuwa 13% na musulman duniya, kuma a wasu alkaluma sun haura miliyan 300, wato kashi 19% na al'ummar musulmin duniya. Yawancin 'yan Shi'a, tsakanin kashi 68 zuwa 80 bisa ɗari, suna zaune ne a kasashe hudu: Iran, Iraq, Pakistan da India.

tarihin samuwar kalmar Shi'a

Akwai ra'ayoyi daban-daban game da tarihin asalin masuwar Shi'a; Daga cikinan ambaci lokacin rayuwar Manzon Allah (S.A.W) bayan waki'ar Saƙifa wasu kuma suna ganin, bayan kashe Usman ne da faruwar waki'ar neman mulki tsakanin banu umayya [1]da banu hashim, abin da sayyid Muhammad Husaini ɗabaɗaba'i malamin falsafa da tafsiri a shia a ƙarni na 11. . Asalin Shi'a wanda a farkonsa ake kiransu da "Shi'ar Ali" sun samu ne a zamanin Manzon Allah (S.A.W.W).[2] Har zuwa ’yan ƙarnoni zuwan Musulunci, ba wai kawai ana amfani da kalmar Shi’a ga wadanda suka yi imani da imamancin imamai 12 bane , A’a, masoya Ahlul Baiti ko kuma waɗanda suke ganin Imam Ali (a.s.) ya fi Usman, su ma ana kiransu Shi’ar Ali[3] Mafi yawan sahabban Ahlul Baiti (a.s.) suna cikin wannan kashi biyun.[4]

An ce tun zamanin Sayyidina Ali (AS), akwai aƙidar Shi’a; Wato wasu daga cikin mabiyansa sun yi imani da cewa Allah ne ya naɗa shi Imamanci [5] Tabbas adadin wannan kungiya kaɗan ne.[6] A zamanin Imam Hasan (a.s.) da Imam Hussaini (a.s) duk da cewa mazhabar ‘yan Shi’a Imamiyya ya ƙaru, amma har yanzu ba su kai ga a ce musu mazhabar addini ba, [7] A lokacin Ahlul Baiti ƴan shia suna da yawa. amma wasu Hadisai sun ce adadin waɗanda suke ganin Allah ne yabawa imamai imamanci bai kai mutum hamsin ba.[8] Daga ƙarshen ƙarni na uku, Shi'a Imamiyya ta bambanta da sauran ƙungiyoyin Shi'a. Bayan shahadar Imam Hasan Askari (A.S) wasu gungun ‘yan Shi’a da suka yi imani da cewa kasa ba za ta taba zama babu Imami ba, sun yi imani da samuwar Imami na goma sha biyu, saidar basu ganshiba zahiri ba . An san wannan kungiya da sunan Shi'a Imamiyya[9] ko shia mai Imamai goma sha biyu Daga wannan lokaci a hankali a hankali adadin wannan mazhabar shi'a ya dinga ƙaruwa, Ta yadda a cewar Sheikh Mufid, a zamaninsa wato shekara ta 373 bayan hijira, shi’a Imamiyya wato mai Imamai goma sha biyu ne suka fi yawan mabiya a cikin sauran ɗariƙoƙin Shi’a.[10]

Hoton taron makokin Arbaeen

Akidu

Ka’idojin aƙidar ‘yan Shia Imamiyya abubuwa guda biyar ne. Kamar sauran musulmai, sun ɗauki tauhidi da annabci da Ma'ad (Alkiyama) a matsayin Asalai da shika-shikan mazhabar su, haka nan kuma sun yi imani da ƙa’idoji biyu na imamanci da adalci waɗanda suka raba su da mazhabar Ahlus-Sunna [11] A cewarsu, bayan wafatin Annabi (S.A.W), ya wajaba wani mai suna Imam ya maye gurbinsa ya ci gaba da aikinsa. Sun yarda da naɗin Imam a matsayin naɗin da Allah ya yi, kuma suna cewa: Allah ya bayyana imam ga mutane ta hanyar Annabi.[12] Ƴan Shi’a Imamiyya, bisa hadisan da suka kawo daga Manzon Allah (S.A.W) sun yi imani da cewa da umurnin Allah ne ya gabatar da Imam Ali a matsayin halifansa kuma Imami na farko [13] sun yi imani da Imamai goma sha biyu a kan hakan suka kawo Riwayoyi kamar hadisin Lauhu da yake bayyana adadin imamai da Sunan su[14] gasu kamar haka:

A cewar ƴan shia Imami na goma sha biyu Mahadi yana raye kuma yana rayuwa a tsakanin mutane sede ba su sanshi ba shi kuma da umarnin Allah ya bacewa ganinsu (Gaiba_Kubra) wata rana zai Mike ya tabbatar da adalci a doran ƙasa.[16] Adalcin Allah kamar Imamanci yana ɗaya daga cikin Asalan mazhabar Shi’a, sunyi imanida koda rana ɗaya ta rage ai tashin Alƙiyama Allah ze bayyanashi kuma ze tabbatar da Adalci a doran ƙasa, san nan ‘yan Shi’a kamar Mu’utazila an kiransu Adliyya saboda imaninsu da adalcin Allah. A bisa aƙidar adalcin Allah, da falala da rahama ko kuma bala'i da ni'ima bisa zati da hali na mutum wanda ya aikata . [17] Raja'a da Bada'u suna daga abin da ƴan Shi'a suka yarda da su,[18] wato bayan bayyanar Imam Mahadi (A.S) wasu muminai daga ƴan Shi’a da masoya Ahlul-Baiti (A.S) da suka mutu, za a tashe su, kuma za a hukunta azzaluman wan nan lokacin dede da aBn da suka aikata.[19] Abin da bada'u yake nufi shine Allah madaukakin sarki saboda wata maslaha yakan bayyanwa Annabawa ko imamai wani ilimi a wani lokaci amma daga baya sai ya canza da wani abun daidai da wan nan lokacin,[20] Akwai Littattafai kamar Awa'ilul makalat, Tas'hihul iitikad, Tajridu Al-Iitiƙad, Kashf Al-Murad, suna daga cikin manya-manyan littafan tauhidi na shia Imamiyyah,[21] Allama Hilli (648-726H) yana ɗaya daga cikin fitattun malaman tauhidi na Imamiyya.[22]

Bambancin Shi'a Imamiyya Da Sauran Firkokin Shi'a

Zaidiyya da Isma'iliyya, sauran ’yan Shi’a ne da ba su yarda da Imamai goma sha biyu ba. Haka kuma ba su takaita adadin imamai zuwa goma sha biyu ba. Zaidiyyah sun yi imani da cewa Annabi ya ƙayyade imamancin mutane uku ne kawai, wato Imam Ali (A.S) da Imam Hassan (A.S) da Imam Husaini (A.S)[23] bayan su duk lokacin da wani mutum mai zuhudu ,ƙarfin imani , baiwar hankali da kyauta kuma tsatsan manzon Allah daga ƴarsa Hazrat Zahara (S) ya miƙe da sunan Allah da nemawa mutane adalci daga hannun Azzalumai to shima imami ne.[24] Zaidu Bn Ali, Yahya Bn Zaidu, Muhammad Bn Abdullahi Bn Hassan (Nafs Zakiyah), Ibrahim Bn Abdullahi da Shahid Fakh na daga cikin Imaman Zaidiyya.[25] Isma’iliyya ba su yarda da imamancin Imam Hasan Mojtabi (A.S) a matsayin imami na biyu ba, [26] sun yarda da imamancin sauran limaman zuwa Imam Sadiƙ (A.S) [27] dan haka bayan imam sadiƙ ɗansa Isma'il da jikansa Muhammad sukai imani dasu [28] A firƙar Isma'iliyya imamanci yana da lokuta daban-daban kuma Imamai bakwai suna jagorantar mutane a kowane lokaci da zamani.[29]

Hukunce-Hukuncen Addini

A mazhabar Imamiyya kamar sauran mazhabobin Musulunci, abubuwa da yawa na rayuwar yauda kullum kamar ibada, mu’amala, haƙƙin shari’a kamar khumusi da zakka, hajji, aure da rabon gado, wajibi ne a yi su kamar yadda shari’a ta tanada.[30] Alkur'ani da hadisan Imamai goma sha biyu, sune tushe da majinginar malamai wajan fidda hukunce hukuncen Shari'a a Imamiyya [31] Ana fidda hukunce-hukuncen ne da taimakon ilimin Diraya da Rijal da Usulul fikhi da Fikihu.[32] Litattafai kamar sharayi-Islam da Al-Lum'atu al-Dimashkiyya da Sharhu lum'ati da Jawahirul Kalam da Makasib da Al-urwa Al-Wuska na daga cikin shahararrun littafan fiƙihun Shi'a na imamiyya,[33] Sheikh Tusiop,Muhakkik Hilli ,allama hilli,shahid Auwal, shahid sani,kashiful giɗa ,mirza ƙummi da Murtada Ansari suna daga cikin fitattun malaman fikihun wan nan mazahaba ta shia imamiyya.[34]

Marja'in Taklidi

A yau ana rubuta hukunce hukuncen shariane a littattafan da ake kira Taudihil Masa'il , waɗanda marajian taƙlidi suka rubuta,[35] marja'in taƙlidi shi ne malami Mujtahidi da ya cika wasu sharuɗɗa wanda mutane suke karɓar fatawoyin addini daga gareshi, Wato suna aiwatar da ayyukansu na addini a bisa ra'ayinsa na fikihu (fatawa) kuma shi suke bawa haƙƙunansu na shari'a ko wakilansa kamar Zakka da Khumusu.[36]

Bukukuwan Addini

Bayan idin Karamar sallah da Idin Babbar Sallah da kuma Idin aiko da Annabi (S.A.W) wadanda su ne bukukuwan addini na dukkan Musulmi, Idin Ghadir, Maulidin Imam Ali (A.S), Maulidin Hazrat Fatima (A.S), da Nisfu Sha’aban su ne muhimman bukukuwan addini na ‘yan Shi’ar Imamiyya. Suna kuma murnar zagayowar ranar haihuwar sauran imaman su.[37] A cikin mazhabar imamiyya, ana son gudanar da ayyuka na musamman na addini a kowane biki; Misali a ranar babar sallah ana son yin ayyuka kamar Wanka, Sallar Idin Babbar Sallah, Layya karanta Ziyarar Imam Husaini (A.S) da addu’ar da ake kira Du'a'u Nudba.[38] A wasu ranaku na shekara, ‘yan Shi’a na gudanar da zaman makoki domin nuna Kauna ga waɗanda aka kashe daga Imamai, da kuma nuna alhininsu a cikin wahalhalun da suka sha tare da Sahabbansu, Muhimman zaman makoki na ‘Yan Shi’a ana gudanar da su a kwanaki Goman farkon Watan Muharram, da Goman karshen Watan Safar, Arba’in da kuma kwanakin Fatimiyya.(Shahadar ƴar manzon Allah sayyada Fatima (S)[39] Addu'o'in Ziyarar Manzon Allah (SAWW) da Ahlul Baiti (A.S) na ɗaya daga cikin manya-manyan ayyukan da Imamiyya suke yi [40] Kuma suna ganin ziyartar ƙabarurrukan ƴaƴan Imamai da sauran manyan malaman addini a matsayin abu mai muhimmanci,[41] a littattafan Riwayoyi na Shi'a anbawa Addu'o'i da Tawassuli muhimmanci sosai ,kuma ankawo wasu addu'oi masu girma da falala daga manzon Allah da Ahlulbait,[42] Daga cikin mashahuran addu’o’i da ziyarorin Imamiyyah akwai: Du'a'u Kumali,[43] Du'a'u Arfa,[44] Du'a'u Nudba.[45] Munajat Sha'abaniyya,[46] Du'a'u Tawassul.[47] Ziyarar Ashura,[48] ziyarar Jami'a kabira [49]da kuma Ziyaratu Aminullahi.[50]

Tushen Madogarar `Yan Shi'a Imamiyya

Ƴan Shi'a imamiyya suna dogaro da Alkur'ani,Riwayoyi , Hankali, da Ijma'i, wajan fahimtar iliman tauhidi, fiƙihu, Akhlaƙ da sauran su,[51]

  • Alkur'ani

Ƴan Shi’ar Imamiyya sun ɗauki Alƙur’ani a matsayin tushen farko kuma mafi muhimmanci na koyar da ilimin addini. Muhimmancin Alƙur'ani a wajansu shi ne, idan wata ruwaya ta saba wa Alƙur'ani ba za ta inganta ba, [52] A cewar Muhammad Hadi Ma'arifat, duk Yan Shi'a sun ɗauki Alƙur'anin da yake hannunsu a yau a matsayin daidai kuma cikakke[53]

  • Hadisan Annabi Da Imamai.

Imamiyyah kamar sauran mazhabobin Musulunci suna daukar Sunnar Annabin Muslunci (S.A.W) wato maganarsa da dabi'unsa a matsayin hukuncince hukuncen su.[54] ‘Yan Shi’ar Imamiyya sun ɗau wasu hadisai kamar Hadis Saƙalaini da Hadis Safina, waɗanda suka yi umarni da a koma ga Ahlil Baiti (A.S) a bi su sau da ƙafa. Haka nan kuma suna ɗaukar hadisan Ahlul Baiti a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin manyan tushen tunaninsu na addini.[55] Muhimman litattafan riwaya na ƴan Shi’a su ne :AlKafi, Tahzeeb Al-Ahkam, Istibsar da Manla yahdiruhu Alfakihu, waɗanda ake ce wa littattafan Arbaa ko Usul Arba'a. [56]Sauran shahararrun littattafan hadisan Shi'a sun hada da: kutubul Arba'a Al-Wafi, Bihar-Anwar, Wasa'il_Shi'a,[57] Mustadrak, Mizanul Al-Hikma, Jami'u-Ahadis Shi'a, AlHayat da wa Asrarus-Sadiƙain.[58] ‘Yan Shi’a ba sa ganin kowane hadisi a matsayin ingantacce. Suna la'akari da ma'auni kamar rashin saba wa Alƙur'ani, amincin Marawaita, da Tawatiri, don haka suke amfani da ilimi kamar Diraya da Rijal [59]

  • Hankali

Hankali maaunine kuma yanada matsayi na musamman a ciki mazhabar Imamiyya. ‘Yan Shi’a Imamiyya suna komawa ga hankali don tabbatar da Asalan Akidu, [60] Kuma suna amfani da shi wajan fitadda hankali a matsayin tushen hukunce- hukuncen Shari’a,[61]

  • Ijma'i

Ijma'i yana ɗaya daga cikin tushe hudu na Istinbadi ciro hukunce-hukuncen Shari'a, kuma an yi magana a kai a cikin ilimin Ususlul fikihi ta bangarori daban-daban.[62] Malaman Shi'a bakaman na Ahlus-sunna bane wajan amfani da ijma'i a a matsayin dalilin hukunce hukuncen kaman Alƙur'ani, sai dai suna ɗaukarsa su yi amfani da shine a matsayin labarin da ya zo a zamanin ma'asumai cewa malaman wancen lokacin sun haɗu akan wani hukunci kuma Ma'asumi ya yarje musu.[63]

Gwamnatoci

An kafa gwamnatocin Shi'a da dama a Duniyar Muslunci, daga cikinsu akwai gwamnatocin Alawiyyawan Tabaristan, Alu-Buwaihi, Fatimiyya, Isma'iliyya da Safawiyya. Zaidiyyawa ne suka kafa gwamnatin Alawi, [64] gwamnatocin Fatimiyyawa da Isma'iliyya na Al'mut sun ginu a kan firƙar Isma'iliyyah; [65] amma akwai sabanin ra'ayi dangane da Alu-buwaihi. Wasu suna ganin cewa su firƙar Zaidiyya ne, wasu suna ganin Imamiyya ne, wasu kuma suka ce a farkon su ne mazhabar Zaidiyya sannan suka koma ga Imamiyya.[66] Sultan Mohammad Khodabande wanda aka fi sani da Uljayito (wanda ya yi sarauta a shekara ta 716-703 bayan hijira) ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin Sarki na farko da ya ayyana Imamiya a matsayin mazhabar hukumar sa[67] kuma ya yi ƙoƙarin yaɗa shianci a ko'ina, saidai daga baya ya janye daga wannan aiki saboda saɓani daya samu da ƴan sunna Amma duk da haka ya kasance dan shi'a har ƙarshen rayuwarsa.[68] Gwamnatin Sarbadaran a Sabziwar ita ma ana kiranta da gwamnatin Shi'a.[69] Amma daga baya ya tabbata cewa shugabannin wan nan hukumar Sufaye ne, sai dai su ma suna da ɗabi’un Shi’a,[70] duk da haka, Khajo Ali Mu'ayyid, wanda shi ne shugaban Sarbadaran na karshe[71] ya ayyana Imamiyya a matsayin mazhabar gwamnatin sa.[72]

Safawiyyawa

Shah Isma'il ya kafa gwamnatin Safawiyya a shekara ta 907 bayan hijira, [73]sannan ya ayyana Imamanci a matsayin mazhabar ƙasar Iran a hukuma,[74] sun yaɗa mazhabar Imamiyya a tsakanin Iraniyawa kuma suka mayar da Iran ƙasa ta 'yan Shi'a gaba ɗaya.[75]

Jamhuriyar Muslunci Ta Iran

An kafa Jamhuriyar Musulunci ta Iran ne a ƙasar Iran bayan nasarar juyin juya halin Musulunci na Iran a ranar 22 ga watan Bahman shekara ta 1357(shamsi) ƙarƙashin jagorancin Imam Khumaini.[76] An kafa hukumar kan addinin Musulunci bisa Asalan mazhabar shi'a imamiyya a gwamnatin . Kuma Wilayatul Fakihi,[77] shine babban maƙami me faɗa aji a ƙasar [78] kamar yadda kundin tsarin mulkin Jamhuriyar Musulunci ta Iran ya tanada, dokokin kasar ba su inganta ba idan ba su dace da addinin Musulunci ba.[79]

Yawan `Yan Shi'a a Fadin Duniya

Babu takamammen ƙididdiga na adadin ‘yan Shi’a Imamiyya a duniya, sai dai kuma alƙaluman da ake da su sun hada da Zaidiyya da ‘yan Shi’ar Isma'iliyya. A cikin rahoton Pew Religion and Public Life Association, an ƙiyasta adadin ‘yan Shi’a a duniya tsakanin mutane miliyan 154 zuwa 200, wanda ya kai kashi 10 zuwa 13 na musulmin duniya;[80] amma mai fassara wannan rahoton. ya yi la’akari da wannan ƙididdiga ba gaskiya ba ne, kuma ya ƙiyasta cewa yawan mutanen Shi’a ya haura sama da miliyan dari uku, wato kashi 19% na al’ummar Musulmin duniya.[81]

Yawancin 'yan Shi'a, tsakanin kashi 68 zuwa 80 bisa ɗari, suna zaune ne a ƙasashe hudu: Iran, Iraki, Pakistan da Indiya. 'Yan Shi'a miliyan 66 zuwa 70 ne ke zaune a Iran, wanda ya kai kashi 37 zuwa 40 na dukkan 'yan Shi'a a duniya. Kowace kasa Pakistan, Indiya da Iraki tana da mabiya Shi'a sama da miliyan 16. [82] A ƙasashe hudu , Iran, Azarbaijan, Bahrain, da Iraƙ, ‘yan Shi’a su ne mafi yawan al’ummar ƙasar.[83] Akwai kuma ‘yan Shi’a da ke zaune a yankuna irin su Gabas ta Tsakiya, Arewacin Afirka, yankin Asiya-Pacific, Turkiyya, Yaman, Siriya, Saudiyya, Amerika, da Kanada.[84]

Bayanin kula

  1. Muharrami, Tarikh Shia, 2013, 43, 44; Sashen Tarihin Jami'ar da Cibiyar Nazarin Hozah, Tarihin Shi'a, 2009, 20-20; Fayyaz, asali da fadada shi’anci, 2002, shafi na 49-53.
  2. Tabatabai, Shi'eh dar Islam 1379, shafi na 25.
  3. Jafarian, Tarik Tashayyu dar Iran aza Aagz ta Tulu'i Daulat Safawi, 1390, shafi na 22, 27.
  4. Fayyaz,Faidayesh wa Gustareshe Tashayyu, 2013, shafi na 61.
  5. Jafarian, Tarik Tashayyu dar Iran aza Aagz ta Tulu'i Daulat Safawi, 1390, shafi na 30
  6. Fayyaz,Faidayesh wa Gustareshe Tashayyu, 2013, shafi na 61
  7. Fayyaz,Faidayesh wa Gustareshe Tashayyu, 2013, shafi na 63-65
  8. Fayyaz,Faidayesh wa Gustareshe Tashayyu, 2013, shafi na 62
  9. Fayyaz,Faidayesh wa Gustareshe Tashayyu, 2013, shafi na 109-110
  10. Sayyid Morteza, Al-Fusul Al-Mukhtara, 1413 AH, shafi na 321.
  11. Motahari, Majmu'eh Asar, 2009, juzu'i na 3, shafi na 96.
  12. Mesbah Yazdi, Amuzeshe Akayid, 2004, shafi na 14.
  13. Allameh Tabatabai, Shi'eh dar Islam , 1379, shafi na 197, 198.
  14. Allameh Tabatabai, Tashayyu dar Islam , 1379, shafi na 197, 198
  15. Allameh Tabatabai, Shi'eh dar Islam , 1379, shafi na 198, 199
  16. Allameh Tabatabai, Shi'eh dar Islam , 1379, shafi na 230-231
  17. Motahari, Majmu'eh Asar, 2009, juzu'i na 3, shafi na 96.
  18. Rabbani Golpayegani, Dar'amad be Shi'eh Shinashi, 1392, shafi na 273; Allameh Tabatabai, Al-Mizan, 1417 AH, juzu'i na 2, shafi na 106.
  19. Rabbani Golpayegani, Dar'amad be Shi'eh Shinashi, 1392, shafi na 273
  20. Tabatabaei, Al-Mizan, 1393 AH, Juzu'i na 11, shafi na 381; Shaykh Mofid, Tahih al-Ithaqad, 1413H, shafi na 65.
  21. Kashfi, Kalam Shia, 2007, shafi na 52.
  22. Kashfi, Kalam Shia, 2007, shafi na 52.
  23. Saberi, Tariku Firakul Ilsami , 2008, juzu'i na 2, shafi 86.
  24. Allameh Tabatabai, Shi'eh dar isalm , 1379, shafi na 167.
  25. Saberi, Tariku Firakul Ilsami, 2008, juzu'i na 2, shafi 90
  26. Saberi, Tariku Firakul Ilsami, 2008, juzu'i na 2, shafi 119
  27. Saberi, Tariku Firakul Ilsami, 2008, juzu'i na 2, shafi 110
  28. Saberi, Tariku Firakul Ilsami , 2008, juzu'i na 2, shafi 110
  29. Saberi, Tariku Firakul Ilsami , 2008, juzu'i na 2, shafi 151-156
  30. Makarem Shirazi, Dayiratu Maref Fiqh Makarn, 1427 AH, Mujalladi na 1, shafi na 65-69.
  31. Muzaffar, Uusulu Fikhi, 1430 q., Part 1, shafi na 54, 64.
  32. Makarem Shirazi, Dayiratu Maref Fiqh Makarn, 1427 AH, Mujalladi na 1, shafi na 176. 323-330
  33. Makarem Shirazi, Dayiratu Maref Fiqh Makarn, 1427 AH, Mujalladi na 1, shafi na 261-264
  34. Makarem Shirazi, Dayiratu Maref Fiqh Makarn, 1427 AH, Mujalladi na 1, shafi na 260-264
  35. Yazdani, "Murur Bar Risalahaye Ilmiyyeh", shafi 292, 292.
  36. Rahmansataish, Taklid 1”, shafi na 789.
  37. Musapour, "Jashanahaye Jahan Islam", shafi na 373-376.
  38. Majlesi, Zad al-Maad, 2009, shafi na 426, 427.
  39. Mazaheri, “Azadari”, shafi na 345.
  40. Fuladi da Nowrozi, “Jayigahe ziyarat dar Ayineh Katolik wa Mazhab Shi'eh ", shafi 29, 30.
  41. مفهوم زیارت و جایگاه آن در فرهنگ اسلامی، سایت راسخون، ۱۳ دی ۱۳۹۴ش، دیده‌شده در ۱۶ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۶ش.
  42. Duba Sheikh Abbas Qomi, Mufatih al-jinan, lissafin littafin.
  43. Hashemi Aghdam, "Asrar al-Arifin Ba-Sharh Du'a'u Kumail", shafi na 32.
  44. Mahalati, "Barasi Tadbiki Du'a'u Arafa Imam Husaini wa Imam Sajjad", shafi na 107.
  45. Ref: Mahdipour, "Ba-Du'a'eh Arafa dar Fagahe Jum'eh"
  46. Heydarzadeh, “Dar Mahdare Munajat Sha'abaniya” shafi na 160.
  47. فضیلت و کیفیت دعای توسل، سایت باشگاه خبرنگاران جوان، ۲۲ آذر ۱۳۹۵، دیده‌شده در ۱۶ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۶.
  48. Rezaei, "Fajuhi dar Asnad wa-nuskahaye ziyarat Ashura", 153.
  49. Nagareshe Maudu'i bar Ziyaratu Jami'a Kabira shafi na 150
  50. Duba Sheikh Abbas Qomi, Mufatih al-jinan, karkashin Ziarat Aminullah.
  51. Muzaffar, Usulul Fiqhi, 1430 q., Part 1, 51.
  52. Duba Rabbani Golpayegani, Dar-Amad be Shi'eshinasi , 1392, shafi 115, 116.
  53. Ma'arifat Attamhid, 1412 AH, juzu'i na 1, shafi na 342.
  54. Duba Rabbani Golpayegani, Dar-Amad be Shi'eshinasi , 1392, shafi na 115- 124
  55. Duba Rabbani Golpayegani, Dar-Amad be Shi'eshinasi , 1392, shafi na 115, 133-135
  56. Moadeb, Tariku Hadis, 2008, shafi na 86
  57. Moadeb, Tarik Hadis, 2008, shafi na 129.
  58. Moadeb, Tarik Hadis, 2008, shafi na 148-156
  59. Allameh Tabatabai, Shi'eh dar Islam, 1379, 128, 129.
  60. Rabbani Golpayegani, Dar'amad Shi’eh, 1392, shafi na 139.
  61. Rabbani Golpayegani, Dar'amad Shi’eh, 1392, shafi na 144-145
  62. Duba Sheikh Ansari, Faraid al-Asul, 1428H, juzu'i na 2, shafi na 179-229
  63. Muzaffar, Usulul Fikhi, 1430 q., juzu’i na 3, shafi na 103.
  64. Chalongar da Shahmoradi,Daultahaye Shi'eh dar Tarik, 1395, shafi na 51.
  65. Chalongar da Shahmoradi,Daultahaye Shi'eh dar Tarik, 1395, shafi na 155-157
  66. Chalongar da Shahmoradi,Daultahaye Shi'eh dar Tarik, 1395, shafi na 125-130
  67. Jafarian, Tarik Tashayyu dar Iran aza Agaz ta Tulu'i Daulat SAfawi , 1390, shafi na 694.
  68. Jafarian, Tarik Tashayyu dar Iran aza Agaz ta Tulu'i Daulat SAfawi , 1390, shafi na
  69. Jafarian, Tarik Tashayyu dar Iran aza Agaz ta Tulu'i Daulat SAfawi , 1390, shafi na 694
  70. Jafarian, Tarik Tashayyu dar Iran aza Agaz ta Tulu'i Daulat SAfawi , 1390, shafi na 777-780
  71. Jafarian, Tarik Tashayyu dar Iran aza Agaz ta Tulu'i Daulat SAfawi , 1390, shafi na 778
  72. Jafarian, Tarik Tashayyu dar Iran aza Agaz ta Tulu'i Daulat SAfawi , 1390, shafi na 781
  73. Hayines, Shi'i, 2009, shafi na 156 da 157.
  74. Foroughi, Karkard Marasim Sogwari Ashura dar Rashmi Shodani Mazhab Shi'eh, 67-68.
  75. Chalongar da Shahmoradi, Daulathayeh Shi'eh dar Tarik, 1395, shafi na 276, 277.
  76. Ghasemi da Karimi, "JamhuriyEH Islami Iran ", shafi na 765.
  77. Ghasemi da Karimi, "JamhuriyEH Islami Iran ", shafi na 768.
  78. Ghasemi da Karimi, "JamhuriyEH Islami Iran ", shafi na 768.
  79. Ghasemi da Karimi, "JamhuriyEH Islami Iran ", shafi na 768.
  80. Anjumaneh Zindagi Umumi PEW Nakashe jam'iyyat Muslimanan Jahan,, 2014, shafi 19.
  81. Anjumaneh Zindagi Umumi PEW Nakashe jam'iyyat Muslimanan Jahan,, 2014, shafi 11
  82. Anjumaneh Zindagi Umumi PEW Nakashe jam'iyyat Muslimanan Jahan,, 2014, shafi 19
  83. Anjumaneh Zindagi Umumi PEW Nakashe jam'iyyat Muslimanan Jahan,, 2014, shafi 20
  84. Anjumaneh Zindagi Umumi PEW Nakashe jam'iyyat Muslimanan Jahan,, 2014, shafi 19-20

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